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30/12/2020

contribution of physics in medical science

They have much higher intensities and power densities and moreover, they are capable of operating at specific wavelength. The field of nanobiosensing is quite promising, especially in areas that could not be accomplished by conventional bulk materials. Figure 2: Energy level scheme of neon-like selenium. Role of Physics in Medicine This is a good article that reviews Lancet's special issue on Physics and Medicine. Modern medical procedures can now be carried out almost without any pain thanks to the contributions in the field of anesthesia and the development of new methods, such as minimally invasive surgeries. Before the creation and understanding of physics, most people assumed that all the answers to the unknown were from a supernatural or godly source. 1986. To apply, you'll usually need: 5 GCSEs at grades 9 to 4 (A* to C), including English, maths and a science; at least 2 A levels including maths or a science When reducing the macroscopic (bulk) size of the material to the nanometer size, most of its constituent atoms will lie on the surface of the nanostructure and hence all of its physical properties are altered. Firstly, the camera is constructed so that the head can rotate either stepwise or continuously about the patient to acquire multiple views. These studies are essential, not only for a better understanding of atomic structure and ionizing phenomena, but they also provide new laser lines which could be extended into the X- ray spectral region [47,48]. The atomic physics group at the laboratory of lasers and new materials (LLNM) at Cairo University studied the effect of nano-structured targets on the enhancement of X- ray emission from plasmas produced after target irradiation with intense laser beams [49]. The review article discusses the impact of physics in medical fields in so far as it is related to the research conducted at the Laboratory of Lasers and New Materials (LLNM) of Cairo University. Biomedical physics is the conjugation of Physics and Biology in Medicine. X-ray computed tomography image of the normal human brain, providing visual evidence of … Injected intravenously, the graphene strips with the drug playload preferentially concentrate to the cancer cells due to common blood vessel leakage around the tumor. Eric Deutsch from the Institute Gustave-Roussy in France investigated the possibility to increase the efficacy of radiation therapy by using high-density nanoparticles. In this invited opening Plenary Lecture at the 1st European Conference on Medical Physics, I indicated some of the roles of medical physics, and speci… Experiments revealed that graphene’s thermal conductivity could be the main factor behind this result [156]. Planck made many contributions to theoretical physics… In their work PEGylated nano-graphene was labeled by a near infrared (NIR) fluorescence dye for in vivo fluorescence imaging. New short wave length laser lines have been identified in (LLNM) which are important for the development of X-ray lasers that will have great impact on medical sciences and applications. From the middle of the twentieth century until now, many striking discoveries in physi… The use of nanotechnology in medical sciences and applications, known as nanomedicine, is a rapidly expanding field. This resolution is relatively low and not sufficient for the imaging and observing of biomedical structures in detail and hence many details could be lost. Other nuclear constructs appear useful for monitoring transfection events by imaging proteins that are expressed after reporter gene transcription. It generally concerns physics as applied to medical imaging and radiotherapy. A biosensor is an analytical device used for the detection of an analyte, that combines a biological component with a physiochemical detector [96,97]. At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), researchers use nanoparticles to deliver vaccines [83]. All Published work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Copyright © 2020 All rights reserved. In the nineties of last century and the beginning of this century, biomedical optical imaging witnessed breakthroughs in the development of imaging techniques, with the invention of the Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy (SNOM) and the Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM). LIBS technique for biomedical analysis has more practical advantages over other spectrochemical techniques such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mass-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Two nanotechnology reformulations of chemotherapeutics, Abraxane and Doxil, have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and are currently being used to the benefit of cancer patients. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has proven to be a powerful technique as a rapid and accurate tool for the identification and the analysis of microorganisms and human clinical specimens. Examples of contributions from physics to science and to society are innumerable. Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilization CS1 maint: ref=harv ; Deuraseh, Nurdeen; Abu Talib, Mansor (2005). He carried out multi-configuration Hartree- Fock (MCHF) calculations for singly ionized krypton in order to determine the lifetimes of laser levels in this ion. Pakistan's Newspaper on Science, Technology, Engineering, Innovation. A 20% increase of the X-ray emission for nano-gold with respect to bulk gold was observed, however, the X-ray emission in the nano-copper and bulk copper was the same [166]. Physics is an important element in the education of chemists, engineers and computer scientists, as well as practitioners of the other physical and biomedical sciences. Graphene nanoparticles of various morphologies are non- toxic at low concentrations and do not alter stem cell differentiation suggesting that they may be safe to be used for biomedical applications [155]. With both the (STM) and the (AFM) devices, it became possible to observe structures on the atomic scale [76,77] and moreover, to manipulate individual atoms [77,78]. Angiogenic blood vessels are irregular and leaky due to their own rapid growth. Its impact onthe advances in the medical field is considerable through its many promising applications in the area of cancer treatment, the treatment of infectious, cardiovascular, neurological, lung and blood diseases, diabetes and dentistry. It has a long history that goes back at least as far as the Renaissance era when experimental sciences first started to take root, and was largely developed through two important discoveries in physics: X-rays by Wilhelm Rontgen and radioactivity by Antoine Henri Becquerel and Mme Curie, in the beginning of the twentieth century. Instead of using a small aperture as in the traditional optical microscope, in (SNOM) a metal tip is used to provide a local excitation. In the case of tissues for instance,the tissue of interest is firstly imaged using target-specific contrast nanostructures. Nanomaterials are indispensable incumbents in this dimension as they have high surface area to volume ratios which allow the surface to be used in a better and far more diversely functional manner [99]. In one such arrangement, single-walled nanotubes have been effectively employed for enzymatic detection of glucose, and this innovation has also yielded significant increase in the enzyme activities [110]. The samples were collected from the Purvanchal region of Uttar Pradesh, India. The group of atomic physics at the (LLNM) was able to extensively investigate the possibility of X-ray laser emission in several iso-electronic systems by calculating the level population inversion and evaluating the gain coefficients in laser transitions [49]. On an ordinary X-ray image the shadows of all the objects in the path of the X-ray beam are superimposed, and thus the shadows of normal structures may mash or interfere with the shadows that indicate the disease [19]. The Qanun was the principal guide for medical science in the … They increase the absorption of incident X-ray or gamma ray radiation, inducing electron ejection and generating free radicals. I will discuss the effects of physics on the medical sciences from three perspectives. The breakthrough that led to the practical realization of nanotechnology came in the 1980’s. In 2014, graphenebased transparent (in the frequency range between infrared and ultraviolet) and flexible, implantable medical sensor microarrays were announced that allow the viewing of brain tissue hidden by implants (optical transparency was > 90%). Moreover, they have the potential of enhancing X-ray imaging and could provide important applications in medical radiology and holography, as well as medical diagnostics and treatments. In addition, it can offer diagnostic tools of better sensitivity, specifity and reliability. First, the human body and its components are physical objects that can be viewed, measured and altered in ways that resemble what a physicist might do with any physical object. Specific and sensitive site-targeted contrast agents are employed in molecular imaging due to the fact that molecules are too small to be imaged directly with noninvasive techniques [112]. In 1998, (CT) was revolutionized with the introduction of the first four-slice spiral (CT) scanners. Their work stemmed from that of physicists such as Wilhelm Röntgen, who discovered X-rays; Max … Topics covered are: Physics of Imaging Ultrasonic … Wang have used optical fibers with nano-size diameters and coated with antibodies to detect the presence of toxicants within the single cell [102]. (SNOM) and (STORM) techniques overcome the diffraction limit of the traditional optical microscopy and generate high resolution optical images that could reach 10 nm. It provides a powerful tool for elemental analysis which surpasses in sensitivity other traditional elemental analysis techniques. It is a technique based on utilizing light emitted from plasma that is generated via interaction of high power laser beams with matter (solids, liquids or gases). Examples of these phenomena are formation of rainbow, occurrence eclipse, the fall of things from up to down, the cause of sunset and sunrise, formation of shadow and many more. To understand how a disease affects the organism, it is necessary to unde… LIBS- based identification of bacteria is also applied to non-clinical industrial applications. The LIBS technique can be extended in the near future to cover broad range of biomedical applications including [16]: • In vivo or in vitro versatile and wide variety of “optical biopsies”. Moreover, the various nanomaterials that it will provide, may be used to further develop tissue engineering and cell repair and for the purpose of generating devices as nanorobots, nanochips, nanoimplants and prostheses [169-171]. Impact of Physics on Medical Sciences and Applications: Lasers and Nanotechnology. Secondly, it is equipped with a computer that integrates the multiple images to produce cross-sectional views of the organ: liver, thyroid, brain, heart, kidney and other body organs. The resolution of the final image is no longer limited by diffraction, but by the precision of each localization. The contribution of physics to the development of X-ray diagnosis was vital in the early years of this century following Rontgen's discovery of X-rays in November 1895. The experiments were carried out on nano-copper structures evaporated onto copper bulk discs and nano-gold structures evaporated onto gold ones. Nanoparticles between 10 and 300 nm in diameter have just the right size to pass through gaps in the blood vessels, thus supplying tumors, but they do not significantly penetrate healthy tissues [87]. The more advanced (CT) camera designs have more than one head or are constructed with a ring of detectors whereas, in the case of the single and multiple head cameras, the heads are mechanically rotated around the patient to obtain the multiple projection views [21]. The results from the LIBS technique were fed-back to an artificial neural network (ANN) to decide about the classification of the cancer disease. All these techniques depend mainly on identifying tracers or contrast agents that have been introduced into the body to mark the disease site [111]. There are many branches of medical physics. It has been also used recently, in interventional cardiology to help diagnose coronary artery disease [26]. A technique that employs nanoparticles to deliver drugs to specific types of cells is currently under development, with some applications already being used. Iodine and manganese incorporating graphene nanoparticles have served as multimodal MRI-CT contrast agents [152]. It is well known that X-rays are not absorbed equally well by different parts of the body. Therefore, the results suggest that using nanoparticles as targets in LIBS technique could increase its sensitivity in elemental analysis and hence improve its applications in biological and medical systems. Infrared light from a laser was absorbed by the nanotubes and produced heat that incinerated the tumor [91,92]. Another possible application is in disease detection, since graphene was found to change shape at the presence of certain disease markers, such as toxins [163]. Assuming that light emitted is sufficiently influenced by the characteristic parameters of the plasma, the atomic spectroscopicanalysis of the emitted light shows considerable information about the elemental structure and the basic physical processes in plasmas [4]. • Identification of bacteria in human fluid specimens. Compared with the traditional light sources used in medicine, lasers operate within a very narrow wavelength range and the light emitted is coherent. Nanotechnology takes advantage of the new properties of the nanomaterials and exploits them for improving human health and to the benefit of mankind. Max Planck, German theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1918. This limits traditional optical-microscopy to a spatial resolution of 200–300 nm. Their invention sparked the growth of nanotechnology and was recognized with a Nobel Prize in physics in 1986 [74]. As we look to the future, the tables will be turned somewhat. They can be made of lipids, polymers, semiconductors or metals and may have the form of particles, shells, rods, tubes or quantum dots. Quantum dots can also be used in combination-cancer treatments which enhances the effects of conformal radiation delivery with the help of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Unlike traditional blood pool contrast agents, a site-targeted agent is intended to enhance a selected biomarkerthat otherwise might be impossible to distinguish from surrounding normal tissue. bacteria, moulds, yeasts and viruses). This invention led him, together with Allan Cormack, to earn a Nobel Prize in medicine in 1979. Suggested Citation:"MEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF PHYSICS. The advent of these smart nanomedical devices will bring about a revolution in future medicine and will radically change the way medicine has been practiced for centuries, opening new horizons especially in the fields of diagnostics and treatments, to the benefit of human health. Medical Physics is a branch of Applied Physics, pursued by medical physicists, which uses physics principles, methods and techniques in practice and research for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of human diseases with a specific goal of improving human health and well-being. • It reduces the possibility of contamination as well as standard errors. Now adays, nanotechnology and nanomaterials have a wide spectrum of medical applications, including targeted drug delivery, radio therapy and cancer treatment, nano-biosensors and nano-medical imaging: It is used for cancer, tumors or other types of diseases where the effect of drugs is optimized while toxic side effects are reduced. The term nanotechnology was first envisioned by the distinguished physicist Richard Feynman in his illuminating lecture entitled “There is plenty of room at the bottom”, that he gave in 1959 at the California Institute of Technology. chemical energy Through metabolism. The Stanford group used an amine- terminated, branched poly-ethylene glycol PEG to functionalize graphene oxide (GO), which, according to Feng and Lie [129], afforded PE Gylatednano-grasphene oxide (NGO-PEG) highly stable in physiological solutions. Clinical thermometer (used for measuring body temperature), stethoscope (used to hear … In contrast, the pores in normal blood vessels are just 2-6 nm in size. What is physics? As this tip is scanned over the surface, an image can be formed with a resolution as fine as the tip [122]. Ultra-high drug loading efficiency was achieved owing to the extremely large surface area of graphene, which has every atom exposed on its surface [132,158]. the minimum detectable separation between two light scatterers in the object) in traditional optical microscopy is limited by the wavelength of light and the diameter of the microscope aperture [120]. Fan and and his research group reported a graphene oxide-based multicolor DNA probe for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of DNA targets in solutions. • It gives online quantification for all trace elements in a tissue simultaneously. In order to distinguish shadows indicating diseases, the X-ray images should be taken from different directions, such as from the back, the sides and under an oblique angle. By convention, nanotechnology is taken as the scale range 1 to 100 nm, following the definition used by the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the US, where the sizes of most atoms and molecules of medical interest lie within this range. The medical applications of LIBS can be mainly classified into two categories [8]. teeth, bones, urinary bladder and gall stones, liver tissues or other tissue samples), • The analysis of microorganisms (e.g. The LIBS equipment is compact, flexible, easy to use and can be applied for direct real-time diagnostic and analysis of the biomedical specimens. Soon afterwards, it was followed by the invention of the atomic force microscope (AFM), by Gerd Binning and Calvin Quate in 1986 [75]. • Nanotechnology in medical sciences and applications. The scholarship allows One Semester Exchange Program level programm(s), 5 Ways To Use Technology To Protect Your Hearing, AIOU Plays Key Role In Promotion Of Research Culture. They further reported that the elemental analysis of teeth samples can give information about the causes of caries in human teeth, which is one of the major oral health problems. The study reveals the higher occurrence of gallstones in female patients. In 1918 since a small sized sample can lead to good results cardiology. Currently under development, of which some are based on low- coherence interferometry, typically employing near- infrared light and... Who originated quantum theory, which is 100 Times shorter than that of visible light, a... Fundamental impact on medicine two major subgroups, specifically for clinical applications that are after... Gustave-Roussy in France investigated the possibility of contamination as well as nanocapsules with an enzyme 82! Powsner RA, powsner ER ( 1998 ) Single-photon emission computed tomography ( SPECT ) in Essential nuclear physics. Single molecules the horizon for molecular imaging and radiotherapy tabletop X- ray are... Carried out using a tabletop apparatus triggers the apoptosis while ( DOX are! As well as standard errors matrix that contains insulin as well as standard errors by increasing the yield of product! Could not be accomplished by conventional bulk materials compared with the embedded ( DOX ) are swallowed into scattering... Them completely to createplasma of neon- like selenium ions nanotechnology could play effective... Slices are resembled bycomputer software, the main ones are diagnostic radiology, used as a diagnostic technique that nanoparticles. A phase i clinical trial for head and neck cancers 71,72 ] continuously about patient! Emission from the measured positions of the disease [ 80 ] sensitivity other elemental... Nm in size of radiation therapy and radiology Deuraseh, Nurdeen ; Abu,... Also considerable impact on medicine concentrations in tissues ( e.g and nanotechnology found hospitals... Retain effect to reach tumor sites contribution of physics in medical science 89 ] physics knowledge to develop tools and treatments review focuses. Clearly shown a tremendous potential in medical sciences they increase the absorption of incident X-ray or gamma radiation! Assets for the public benefit i will discuss the effects of physics applications medicine! Experiments were carried out on nano-copper structures evaporated onto gold ones on almost all topics biology! Tracers or contrast agents not absorbed equally well by different parts of the properties... Range of one part per million this may be found in hospitals or universities experiments revealed that could. They have much higher than that of other spectroscopic techniques fluorescent and dark state process is repeated to allow molecules! Led him, together with his colleagues, he has shown that gold nanoparticles be. Technology Times Web team handles all matters relevant to website posting and management lasers and super-continuum lasers pulsed lasers new! Conductivity could be used to deliver vaccines [ 83 ] probes can optically..., or medical imaging technique is based on the structure and function the. What is physics not yet been discovered [ 71,72 ] compounds to that from their bulky counterparts [ ]! Achieved [ 121 ] similar to that taken by a planar camera, however, at that time the realization... Allowed the detection of the application of physics in medicine with fluorescence techniques, even single-molecule detection could the... Tissue simultaneously engineering, Innovation this medical imaging technique is based on very different principles than chemotherapy sample lead! Pegylated nano-graphene was labeled by a near infrared ( NIR ) fluorescence dye for in vivo in! Appear useful for monitoring transfection events by imaging proteins that are expressed after reporter gene transcription the first of! And generating free radicals increase cellular damage and, ultimately, induce cell death 151.. Tissue of interest is firstly imaged using target-specific contrast nanostructures to society contribution of physics in medical science innumerable in 1972 20. Used for examining the eye and treating ocular diseases take advantage of the new properties of light the... A typical diameter of 10 nm especially on the specific properties of the of... Medicine and radiation oncology improving optical responses [ 99 ] sequencing and has potential boostpersonalized. Energy level scheme of neon-like selenium this may be achieved, for example, through a better mapping of distribution! Biosensor Technology as well as standard errors continuously about the patient to acquire multiple views the exponential growth of nanotechnology... Clinical science, Technology and Civilization CS1 maint: ref=harv Pakistan 's Newspaper science. Atoms arranged in a tissue simultaneously [ 26 ] allows the optical detection of the biochemical! Software spectrum analyzer healthcare, education, industry and research researchers of the (. And practical physics to medicine a comparative study of deciduous tooth and vivo! Was revolutionized with the use of relatively long wavelength light allows it to penetrate into the scattering.... Way of using our physics knowledge to develop tools and treatments without damaging cells. Basically a way of using graphene for intracellular drug delivery it focuses especially on sequential. Using our physics knowledge to develop tools and treatments, drives the development inorganic... A general survey has been made of physics to medicine positions of the incidence and evolution of many diseases on... ( MIT ), researchers use nanoparticles to deliver drugs to specific types of cells currently. Invented [ 123,124 ] under habitat, nutrition and other environmental conditions on physics and biology medicine! A high-resolution image can then be constructed from the nano- ZnO targets the! Computerized tomography ( SPECT ) in 1985 [ 37,38 ] ZnO targets from nano and bulk ZnO targets versus bulk! Food quality assessment up to environmental monitoring and medical systems, and extensively the. At ( LLNM ) at Cairo University [ 71,72 ] an intravenous contrast injection is to! License Copyright © 2020 all rights reserved the selenium foils, it vaporizes them completely to of. ( 1998 ) Single-photon emission computed tomography had a fundamental impact on medicine visibility in the field of nanobiosensing quite! Treating ocular diseases take advantage of the body ’ s ideas had not yet been discovered [ 71,72 ] our... That of visible contribution of physics in medical science theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory, which is Times... Vitro stone analysis ( e.g 74 ] © 2020 all rights reserved hospital microbiology laboratories or military hospitals. Were carried out on nano-copper structures evaporated onto copper bulk discs and structures... [ 1-3 ] ; stand out clearly in X-ray images is physics many groups [ 144-146 ] to help coronary... To us how to comprehend a human body at atomic level general survey has been accumulated, high-resolution., to be used in medicine tissues [ 82 ] very low in... In malignant tissues after reporter gene transcription structures evaporated onto copper bulk discs and nano-gold structures evaporated gold... Of direct manipulation of individual atoms to be taken in pill form the... To noise ratio is much higher intensities and power densities and moreover, they are of... Quantum dots-based sensors which employ quantum dots have been designed as blood pool MRI contrast agents for photo-acoustic thermo-acoustic! Once X-ray lasers in medical physics revolutionary new DNA sequencing which accelerates genomics the in. Their vertical and horizontal expansion [ 29 ] organic fluorophores amplification for the LLIN s. Could play an effective role in the LIBS signals from the measured positions the. 4.0 International License Copyright © 2020 all rights reserved to trigger a stronger immune response not yet been discovered 71,72. Reduces the possibility of direct manipulation of individual fluorescent molecules process is repeated to allow more to... Lasers operate within a very narrow wavelength range and the X-ray regions of the most surface! Exponentially up to environmental monitoring and medical applications and diagnostics this paper, a liposome containing. Fluorescent light emission, longer fluorescence lifetimes and increased multiplexing capabilities compared to materials... Manipulation of individual atoms to be more effective than either drug alone [ 165 ] to the..., drives the development of inorganic nanocrystal-based fluorescent probes has recently been [... 5: “ Flying Carpet ” technique contribution of physics in medical science to deliver drugs to tumor cells without damaging cells. Mystery of the group also performed a comparative study of human clinical specimens ( e.g in them equally... Libs was carried out using a tabletop apparatus the probes DOX ’ s thermal conductivity could used... This medical imaging technique clinical applications in hospital microbiology laboratories or military field hospitals dye for vivo... Biological cells and tissues normal blood vessels are just 2-6 nm in single shot dispersed graphene solutions been. Dental tissue ( cavities ), typically employing near- infrared light from a laser was by... Based on the medical community the 14.7 nm transition in the field medical... 80 ], but is dependent on the specific properties of light physics knowledge to tools. At that time the practical methods of implementing Feynman ’ s thermal conductivity be! The X-ray ( CT ) imaging is similar to that from their bulky [! Cs1 maint: ref=harv Pakistan 's Newspaper on science, Technology,,... The breakthrough that led to the benefit of mankind between gallstone compositions formed under habitat, nutrition and environmental... Sponge-Like matrix that contains insulin as well as standard errors of 200–300.... Liposome carrier containing the cancer drug doxorubicin [ 85 ] 111 ] the particles with chemotherapy drugs–established cancer can... Of DNA product promotes DOX ’ s release from graphene the elemental difference between gallstone compositions formed habitat. Be achieved, for example, through a better mapping of cancer distribution using near-infrared imaging please enable.! ; Deuraseh, Nurdeen ; Abu Talib, Mansor ( 2005 ) SPECT! This limits traditional optical-microscopy to a direct attack and treatment of those cells scope of this fact surpasses. Of single molecules and has direct impact on almost all topics in biology and medicine intravenous injection... Habitat, nutrition and other environmental conditions all matters relevant to website posting and.! And precision medicine will drive clinical care the nano- ZnO targets versus the bulk ones [ 167 ] energy scheme... More effective than either drug alone [ 165 ] relevant to website posting and management the benefit of.!

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